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By a fragment of a natural language, we understand a collection of sentences forming a naturally delineated subset of that language and equipped with a semantics commanding the general assent of its native speakers. By the semantic complexity of such a fragment, we understand the computational complexity of deciding whether any given set of sentences in that fragment represents a logically possible situation. In earlier papers by the first author, the semantic complexity of various fragments of English involving at most transitive verbs was investigated. The present paper considers various fragments of English involving ditransitive verbs and determines their semantic complexity.
In this paper we will be concerned with the interpretability logic of PA and in particular with the fact that this logic, which is denoted by ILM, does not have the interpolation property. An example for this fact seems to emerge from the fact that ILM cannot express Σ₁-ness. This suggests a way to extend the expressive power of interpretability logic, namely, by an additional operator for Σ₁-ness, which might give us a logic with the interpolation property. We will formulate this extension, give an axiomatization which is modally complete and arithmetically complete (although for proofs of these theorems we refer to an earlier paper), and investigate interpolation. We show that this logic still does not have the interpolation property.
The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative randomness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky, and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential geometry. We study the sw-degrees of c.e. reals and construct a c.e. real which has no random c.e. real (i.e., Ω number) sw-above it.
While the classical account of the linear continuum takes it to be a totality of points, which are its ultimate parts, Aristotle conceives of it as continuous and infinitely divisible, without ultimate parts. A formal account of this conception can be given employing a theory of quantification for nonatomic domains and a theory of region-based topology.
This paper will examine universality spectra for relational theories which cannot be described in first-order logic. We will give a method using functors to show that two types of structures have the same universality spectrum. A combination of methods will be used to show universality results for certain ordered structures and graphs. In some cases, a universal spectrum under GCH will be obtained. Since the theories are not first-order, the classic model theory result under GCH does not hold.
Dini's theorem says that compactness of the domain, a metric space, ensures the uniform convergence of every simply convergent monotone sequence of real-valued continuous functions whose limit is continuous. By showing that Dini's theorem is equivalent to Brouwer's fan theorem for detachable bars, we provide Dini's theorem with a classification in the recently established constructive reverse mathematics propagated by Ishihara. As a complement, Dini's theorem is proved to be equivalent to the analogue of the fan theorem, weak König's lemma, in the original classical setting of reverse mathematics started by Friedman and Simpson.
This article presents a parametrized functional interpretation. Depending on the choice of two parameters one obtains well-known functional interpretations such as Gödel's Dialectica interpretation, Diller-Nahm's variant of the Dialectica interpretation, Kohlenbach's monotone interpretations, Kreisel's modified realizability, and Stein's family of functional interpretations. A functional interpretation consists of a formula interpretation and a soundness proof. I show that all these interpretations differ only on two design choices: first, on the number of counterexamples for A which became witnesses for ¬A when defining the formula interpretation and, second, the inductive information about the witnesses of A which is considered in the proof of soundness. Sufficient conditions on the parameters are also given which ensure the soundness of the resulting functional interpretation. The relation between the parametrized interpretation and the recent bounded functional interpretation is also discussed.
Grossberg and VanDieren have started a program to develop a stability theory for tame classes. We name some variants of tameness and prove the following. Let K be an AEC with Löwenheim-Skolem number ≤κ. Assume that K satisfies the amalgamation property and is κ-weakly tame and Galois-stable in κ. Then K is Galois-stable in κ⁺ⁿ for all n<ω. With one further hypothesis we get a very strong conclusion in the countable case. Let K be an AEC satisfying the amalgamation property and with Löwenheim-Skolem number ℵ₀ that is ω-local and ℵ₀-tame. If K is ℵ₀-Galois-stable then K is Galois-stable in all cardinalities.