By a fragment of a natural language, we understand a collection of sentences forming a naturally delineated subset of that language and equipped with a semantics commanding the general assent of its native speakers. By the semantic complexity of such a fragment, we understand the computational complexity of deciding whether any given set of sentences in that fragment represents a logically possible situation. In earlier papers by the first author, the semantic complexity of various fragments of English involving at most transitive verbs was investigated. The present paper considers various fragments of English involving ditransitive verbs and determines their semantic complexity.
"More Fragments of Language." Notre Dame J. Formal Logic 47 (2) 151 - 177, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1305/ndjfl/1153858644