In this paper, a diffusive tumour-immune model is presented. By comparing the effect of Neumann boundary conditions and Dirichlet boundary conditions on the stability of trivial equilibrium, we derive that the former can provide more mechanisms for spatial pattern formation of the model. By taking the diffusion rate of tumour cells as a parameter, we first give the local and global steady-state bifurcations emitting from the positive equilibrium of the model. Then the stability of the bifurcation solution is discussed by computing the second derivative of an appropriate function, which is different from the general case. Furthermore, numerical simulations provide an indication of the wealth of patterns that the system can exhibit. In particular, periodic oscillation and spot-like patterns can be observed in one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations, respectively. All results obtained reveal the mechanism of interaction between tumour cells and immune system, which have profound significance for the development of tumour immunotherapy.
The work is supported in part by the National Natural Science
Foundations of China (11771262, 11671243).
"Spatial Patterns and Bifurcation Analysis of a Diffusive Tumour-immune Model." Taiwanese J. Math. 25 (3) 553 - 577, June, 2021. https://doi.org/10.11650/tjm/200904