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November 1998 The Gifi system of descriptive multivariate analysis
George Michailidis, Jan de Leeuw
Statist. Sci. 13(4): 307-336 (November 1998). DOI: 10.1214/ss/1028905828


The Gifi system of analyzing categorical data through nonlinear varieties of classical multivariate analysis techniques is reviewed. The system is characterized by the optimal scaling of categorical variables which is implemented through alternating least squares algorithms. The main technique of homogeneity analysis is presented, along with its extensions and generalizations leading to nonmetric principal components analysis and canonical correlation analysis. Several examples are used to illustrate the methods. A brief account of stability issues and areas of applications of the techniques is also given.


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George Michailidis. Jan de Leeuw. "The Gifi system of descriptive multivariate analysis." Statist. Sci. 13 (4) 307 - 336, November 1998.


Published: November 1998
First available in Project Euclid: 9 August 2002

zbMATH: 1059.62551
MathSciNet: MR1705265
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1214/ss/1028905828

Primary: 62-01
Secondary: 62H99

Keywords: alternating least squares , loss functions , multivariate techniques , Optimal scaling , stability

Rights: Copyright © 1998 Institute of Mathematical Statistics


Vol.13 • No. 4 • November 1998
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