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We present an order-theoretic analysis of set-theoretic paradoxes. This analysis will show that a large variety of purely set-theoretic paradoxes (including the various Russell paradoxes as well as all the familiar implementations of the paradoxes of Mirimanoff and Burali-Forti) are all instances of a single limitative phenomenon.
We characterize the join-irreducible Medvedev degrees as the degrees of complements of Turing ideals, thereby solving a problem posed by Sorbi. We use this characterization to prove that there are Medvedev degrees above the second-least degree that do not bound any join-irreducible degrees above this second-least degree. This solves a problem posed by Sorbi and Terwijn. Finally, we prove that the filter generated by the degrees of closed sets is not prime. This solves a problem posed by Bianchini and Sorbi.
We study Lascar strong types and Galois types and especially their relation to notions of type which have finite character. We define a notion of a strong type with finite character, the so-called Lascar type. We show that this notion is stronger than Galois type over countable sets in simple and superstable finitary AECs. Furthermore, we give an example where the Galois type itself does not have finite character in such a class.
We show that for any pair $\phi$ and $\psi$ of contradictory formulas of dependence logic there is a formula $\theta$ of the same logic such that $\phi\equiv\theta$ and $\psi\equiv\neg\theta$. This generalizes a result of Burgess.
We use a result due to Rolin, Speissegger, and Wilkie to show that definable sets in certain o-minimal structures admit definable parameterizations by mild maps. We then use this parameterization to prove a result on the density of rational points on curves defined by restricted Pfaffian functions.
What is the philosophical significance of the soundness and completeness theorems for first-order logic? In the first section of this paper I raise this question, which is closely tied to current debate over the nature of logical consequence. Following many contemporary authors' dissatisfaction with the view that these theorems ground deductive validity in model-theoretic validity, I turn to measurement theory as a source for an alternative view. For this purpose I present in the second section several of the key ideas of measurement theory, and in the third and central section of the paper I use these ideas in an account of the relation between model theory, formal deduction, and our logical intuitions.
The stable Ramsey's theorem for pairs has been the subject of numerous investigations in mathematical logic. We introduce a weaker form of it by restricting from the class of all stable colorings to subclasses of it that are nonnull in a certain effective measure-theoretic sense. We show that the sets that can compute infinite homogeneous sets for nonnull many computable stable colorings and the sets that can compute infinite homogeneous sets for all computable stable colorings agree below $\emptyset'$ but not in general. We also answer the analogs of two well-known questions about the stable Ramsey's theorem by showing that our weaker principle does not imply COH or WKL0 in the context of reverse mathematics.