We consider consistent particle systems, which include independent random walkers, the symmetric exclusion and inclusion processes, as well as the dual of the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model. Consistent systems are such that the distribution obtained by first evolving n particles and then removing a particle at random is the same as the one given by a random removal of a particle at the initial time followed by evolution of the remaining particles.
In this paper we discuss two main results. Firstly, we show that, for reversible systems, the property of consistency is equivalent to self-duality, thus obtaining a novel probabilistic interpretation of the self-duality property. Secondly, we show that consistent particle systems satisfy a set of recursive equations. This recursions implies that factorial moments of a system with n particles are linked to those of a system with particles, thus providing substantial information to study the dynamics. In particular, for a consistent system with absorption, the particle absorption probabilities satisfy universal recurrence relations.
Since particle systems with absorption are often dual to boundary-driven non-equilibrium systems, the consistency property implies recurrence relations for expectations of correlations in non-equilibrium steady states. We illustrate these relations with several examples.
We thank Mario Ayala and Federico Sau for useful discussions and suggestions.
"Consistent particle systems and duality." Electron. J. Probab. 26 1 - 31, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1214/21-EJP684