Novel sampling algorithms can significantly impact open questions in computational biology, most notably the in silico protein folding problem. By using computational methods, protein folding aims to find the three-dimensional structure of a protein chain given the sequence of its amino acid building blocks. The complexity of the problem strongly depends on the protein representation and its energy function. The more detailed the model, the more complex its corresponding energy function and the more challenge it sets for sampling algorithms. Kou, Zhou and Wong have introduced a novel sampling method, which could contribute significantly to the field of structural prediction.
"Discussion of “Equi-energy sampler” by Kou, Zhou and Wong." Ann. Statist. 34 (4) 1636 - 1641, August 2006. https://doi.org/10.1214/009053606000000470