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June, 1970 An Iterative Procedure for Estimation in Contingency Tables
Stephen E. Fienberg
Ann. Math. Statist. 41(3): 907-917 (June, 1970). DOI: 10.1214/aoms/1177696968


Deming and Stephan (1940) first proposed the use of an iterative proportional fitting procedure to estimate cell probabilities in a contingency table subject to certain marginal constraints. In this paper we first relate this procedure to a variety of sources and a variety of statistical problems. We then describe the procedure geometrically for two-way contingency tables using the concepts presented in Fienberg (1968). This geometrical description leads to a rather simple proof of the convergence of the iterative procedure. We conclude the paper with a discussion of extensions to multi-dimensional tables and to tables with some zero entries.


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Stephen E. Fienberg. "An Iterative Procedure for Estimation in Contingency Tables." Ann. Math. Statist. 41 (3) 907 - 917, June, 1970.


Published: June, 1970
First available in Project Euclid: 27 April 2007

zbMATH: 0198.23401
MathSciNet: MR266394
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1214/aoms/1177696968

Rights: Copyright © 1970 Institute of Mathematical Statistics

Vol.41 • No. 3 • June, 1970
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