The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is a U.S. Department of Energy project that collects meteorological observations at several locations around the world in order to study how weather processes affect global climate change. As one of its initiatives, it operates a set of fixed but irregularly-spaced monitoring facilities in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. We describe methods for interpolating temperature records from these fixed facilities to locations at which no observations were made, which can be useful when values are required on a spatial grid. We interpolate by conditionally simulating from a fitted nonstationary Gaussian process model that accounts for the time-varying statistical characteristics of the temperatures, as well as the dependence on solar radiation. The model is fit by maximizing an approximate likelihood, and the conditional simulations result in well-calibrated confidence intervals for the predicted temperatures. We also describe methods for handling spatial–temporal jumps in the data to interpolate a slow-moving cold front.
"Interpolation of nonstationary high frequency spatial–temporal temperature data." Ann. Appl. Stat. 7 (3) 1684 - 1708, September 2013. https://doi.org/10.1214/13-AOAS633