The nine two-dimensional Cayley-Klein geometries are firstly reviewed by following a graded contraction approach. Each geometry is considered as a set of three symmetrical homogeneous spaces (of points and two kinds of lines), in such a manner that the graded contraction parameters determine their curvature and signature. Secondly, new Poisson homogeneous spaces are constructed by making use of certain Poisson-Lie structures on the corresponding motion groups. Therefore, the quantization of these spaces provides noncommutative analogues of the Cayley-Klein geometries. The kinematical interpretation for the semi-Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian Cayley-Klein geometries is emphasized, since they are just Newtonian and Lorentzian spacetimes of constant curvature.