Spatial designs for monitoring stream networks, especially ephemeral systems, are typically non-standard, ‘sparse’ and can be very complex, reflecting the complexity of the ecosystem being monitored, the scale of the population, and the competing multiple monitoring objectives. The main purpose of this paper is to present a review of approaches to spatial design to enable informed decisions to be made about developing practical and optimal spatial designs for future monitoring of streams.
"Sparse sampling: Spatial design for monitoring stream networks." Statist. Surv. 2 113 - 153, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1214/07-SS032