Randomly wired multistage networks have recently been shown to outperform traditional multistage networks in three respects. First, they have fast deterministic packet-switching and circuit-switching algorithms for routing permutations. Second, they are nonblocking, and there are on-line algorithms for establishing new connections in them, even if many requests for connections are made simultaneously. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, they are highly fault tolerant.
"Randomly Wired Multistage Networks." Statist. Sci. 8 (1) 70 - 75, February, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1177011086