Weighting is one of the central steps in surveys. The typical weighting process involves three major stages. At the first stage, each unit is assigned a base weight, which is defined as the inverse of its inclusion probability. The base weights are then modified to account for unit nonresponse. At the last stage, the nonresponse-adjusted weights are further modified to ensure consistency between survey estimates and known population totals. When needed, the weights undergo a last modification through weight trimming or weight smoothing methods in order to improve the efficiency of survey estimates. This article provides an overview of the various stages involved in the typical weighting process used by national statistical offices.
"Construction of Weights in Surveys: A Review." Statist. Sci. 32 (2) 206 - 226, May 2017. https://doi.org/10.1214/16-STS608