Ronald A. Fisher’s 1921 article on mathematical statistics (submitted and read in 1921; published in 1922) was arguably the most influential article on that subject in the twentieth century, yet up to that time Fisher was primarily occupied with other pursuits. A number of previously published documents are examined in a new light to argue that the origin of that work owes a considerable (and unacknowledged) debt to a challenge issued in 1916 by Karl Pearson.
"Fisher in 1921." Statist. Sci. 20 (1) 32 - 49, February 2005. https://doi.org/10.1214/088342305000000025