In response to the growing problem of grade inflation in American undergraduate institutions, alternatives to GPA and GPA-based student assessment are discussed. One alternative summary, based on a Bayesian latent trait formulation, eliminates many of the inequities associated with GPA-based measures and has been proposed as a replacement for GPA-based class ranks at Duke University.
Valen E. Johnson. "An alternative to traditional GPA for evaluating student performance." Statist. Sci. 12 (4) 251 - 278, November 1997. https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1030037959