This article is about the connection between enumerative combinatorics and equilibrium statistical mechanics. The combinatorics side concerns species of combinatorial structures and the associated exponential generating functions. The passage from species to generating functions is a combinatorial analog of the Fourier transform. Indeed, there is a convolution multiplication on species that is mapped to a pointwise multiplication of the exponential generating functions. The statistical mechanics side deals with a probability model of an equilibrium gas. The cluster expansion that gives the density of the gas is the exponential generating function for the species of rooted connected graphs. The main results of the theory are simple criteria that guarantee the convergence of this expansion. It turns out that other problems in combinatorics and statistical mechanics can be translated to this gas setting, so it is a universal prescription for dealing with systems of high dimension.
"Combinatorics and cluster expansions." Probab. Surveys 7 157 - 206, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1214/10-PS159