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The idea of combining logics, structures, and theories has recently been attracting interest in areas as diverse as constraint logic programming, theorem proving, verification, computational linguistics, artificial intelligence and indeed, various branches of logic itself. It would be an exaggeration to claim that these (scattered, and by-and-large independent) investigations have crystallized into an enterprise meriting the title "combined methods"; nonetheless, a number of interesting themes are emerging. This introduction notes some prominent ones and relates them to the papers in this special issue.
We investigate the effect on the complexity of adding the universal modality and the reflexive transitive closure modality to modal logics. From the examples in the literature, one might conjecture that adding the reflexive transitive closure modality is at least as hard as adding the universal modality, and that adding either of these modalities to a multi-modal logic where the modalities do not interact can only increase the complexity to EXPTIME-complete. We show that the first conjecture holds under reasonable assumptions and that, except for a number of special cases which we fully characterize, the hardness part of the second conjecture is true. However, the upper bound part of the second conjecture fails miserably: we show that there exists a uni-modal, decidable, finitely axiomatizable, and canonical logic for which adding the universal modality causes undecidability and for which adding the reflexive transitive closure modality causes high undecidability.
This paper investigates modular combinations of temporal logic systems. Four combination methods are described and studied with respect to the transfer of logical properties from the component one-dimensional temporal logics to the resulting combined two-dimensional temporal logic. Three basic logical properties are analyzed, namely soundness, completeness, and decidability. Each combination method comprises three submethods that combine the languages, the inference systems, and the semantics of two one-dimensional temporal logic systems, generating families of two-dimensional temporal languages with varying expressivity and varying degrees of transfer of logical properties. The temporalization method and the independent combination method are shown to transfer all three basic logical properties. The method of full join of logic systems generates a considerably more expressive language but fails to transfer completeness and decidability in several cases. So a weaker method of restricted join is proposed and shown to transfer all three basic logical properties.
In the study of nonmonotonic reasoning the main emphasis has been on static (declarative) aspects. Only recently has there been interest in the dynamic aspects of reasoning processes, particularly in artificial intelligence. We study the dynamics of reasoning processes by using a temporal logic to specify them and to reason about their properties, just as is common in theoretical computer science. This logic is composed of a base temporal epistemic logic with a preference relation on models, and an associated nonmonotonic inference relation, in the style of Shoham, to account for the nonmonotonicity. We present an axiomatic proof system for the base logic and study decidability and complexity for both the base logic and the nonmonotonic inference relation based on it. Then we look at an interesting class of formulas, prove a representation result for it, and provide a link with the rule of monotonicity.
We study the decidability problem for metric and layered temporal logics. The logics we consider are suitable to model time granularity in various contexts, and they allow one to build granular temporal models by referring to the "natural scale" in any component of the model and by properly constraining the interactions between differently-grained components. A monadic second-order language combining operators such as temporal contextualization and projection, together with the usual displacement operator of metric temporal logics, is considered, and the theory of finitely-layered metric temporal structures is shown to be decidable.
This paper is about partially ordered multisets (pomsets for short). We investigate a particular class of pomsets that we call order-deterministic, properly including all partially ordered sets, which satisfies a number of interesting properties: among other things, it forms a distributive lattice under pomset prefix (hence prefix closed sets of order-deterministic pomsets are prime algebraic), and it constitutes a reflective subcategory of the category of all pomsets. For the order-deterministic pomsets we develop an algebra with a sound and ($\omega$-) complete equational theory. The operators in the algebra are concatenation and join, the latter being a variation on the more usual disjoint union of pomsets. This theory is then extended in order to capture refinement of pomsets by incorporating homomorphisms between models as objects in the algebra and homomorphism application as a new operator.
In this paper we describe a framework for the construction of entities that can serve as interpretations of arbitrary contiguous chunks of text. An important part of the paper is devoted to describing stacking cells, or the proposed meanings for bracket-structures.
The general methodology of "algebraizing" logics is used here for combining different logics. The combination of logics is represented as taking the colimit of the constituent logics in the category of algebraizable logics. The cocompleteness of this category as well as its isomorphism to the corresponding category of certain first-order theories are proved.