It is well known that if $\Phi _n (x)$ is the $n$th cyclotomic polynomial, then there is a factorization $x^n - 1 = \prod \Phi _d (x)$, where the product is taken over the divisors $d$ of $n$. Thus, one can obtain, by Möbius inversion, a product formula for each $\Phi _n (x)$ in terms of the various factors $x^d - 1$. The purpose of this note is two-fold. First, we show that the above factorization implies a similar factorization for the minimal polynomials of the algebraic numbers $\cos (2\pi / n)$, where $n$ is a positive integer. Secondly, we give an explicit formula for the minimal polynomials of $\cos (2\pi / p)$, where $p$ is prime.
"Homogeneous Polynomials and the Minimal Polynomial of COS $(2\pi / n)$." Missouri J. Math. Sci. 15 (1) 4 - 14, Winter 2003. https://doi.org/10.35834/2003/1501014