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Wavelet methods with polynomial filters are usually favored in applications for their fast wavelet transforms and compact support. However, wavelet methods with rational filters have more freedom to achieve smaller condition numbers, more regularity and better efficiency. Such methods can be attractive if they also possess fast algorithms and have fast decay (as if the corresponding wavelets had compact support). In the first part of this paper, we propose a new wavelet method with rational filters which do have these properties. We call it the difference wavelet method. It is a generalization of Butterworth wavelets. The analysis part is simply averaging and finite differencing. The wavelet coefficients measure the finite differences of the averages of an input data sequence. Its synthesis part involves rational filters, which can be performed with linear computational complexity by the cyclic reduction method. Their Riesz basis property, biorthogonality, decay and regularity are investigated.
In the second part of this paper, we perform comparison studies of the difference wavelet method (Diff) with three other popular wavelet methods: the Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau biorthogonal wavelets (CDF), the Daubechies orthogonal wavelets (Daub) and the Chui-Wang semi-orthogonal wavelets (CW). Natural criteria in designing good wavelet methods for representing functions and operators are speed, stability and efficiency. Therefore, the items of our first comparison include (i) operation counts for performing transformations, (ii) condition numbers of the wavelet transformations, (iii) compression ratios, by some numerical experiments, for representing (smooth or non-smooth) data sequences and matrices (smooth or non-smooth kernels). The results show that (i) Diff, Daub and CDF have about the same operation counts, and CW has more; (ii) Diff has about the same condition numbers as those of CDF and CW; (iii) Diff has better compression ratio for both (smooth or non-smooth) data sequences and matrices (smooth or non-smooth kernels).
The items of our second comparison include regularity, approximation power (the constant in the approximation estimate), approximation errors for non-smooth functions (where Gibbs phenomena appear) and the “essential supports.” The results show that Diff has better regularity and better approximation ability with only slightly bigger essential supports. It is evident that the better efficiency of Diff for smooth functions is due to its regularity. It is surprising that, even for nonsmooth functions, Diff is comparable to, sometimes even superior to, other methods, despite its infinite-support property.
This paper is organized as follows. Sec. 1 is preliminary. Sec. 2 provides the theory of the difference wavelet method. Sec. 3 contains the comparison studies. Experts are suggested to read Sec. 3 directly.
It is demonstrated that slowly travelling pulses arising in a reaction-diffusion (RD) system with the FitzHugh-Nagumo type nonlinearity do not necessarily annihilate but reflect off of each other before they collide. This phenomenon is in contrast with the well-known annihilation of travelling pulses on nerve axon and expanding rings in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. By using singular perturbation methods, we derive a fourth order system of ODEs from the RD system, and study non-annihilation phenomenon of very slowly travelling pulses.
We study the semi-classical limit of the nonlinear Schr$#x00F6;dinger-Poisson (NLSP) equation for initial data of the WKB type. The semi-classical limit in this case is realized in terms of a density-velocity pair governed by the Euler-Poisson equations. Recently we have shown that the isotropic Euler-Poisson equations admit a critical threshold phenomena, where initial data in the sub-critical regime give rise to globally smooth solutions. Consequently, we justify the semi-classical limit for sub-critical NLSP initial data and confirm the validity of the WKB method.
This paper is concerned with the existence and the stability of global solutions, with concentrations, for two systems of Partial Differential Equations. The first one is a system modeling adhesion dynamics, the second one is the incompressible Euler equations in vorticity form, with vortex points of distinguished sign. The results are obtained in two space dimension. In order to study the concentrations effects, defect measures for sequences of tensor products of measures are introduced.
Uniqueness and existence of $L^$#x221E;$ solutions to initial boundary value problems for scalar conservation laws, with continuous flux functions, is derived by $L^1$ contraction of Young measure solutions. The classical Kruzkov entropies, extended in Bardos, LeRoux and Nedelec’s sense to boundary value problems, are sufficient for the contraction. The uniqueness proof uses the essence of Kruzkov’s idea with his symmetric entropy and entropy flux functions, but the usual doubling of variables technique is replaced by the simpler fact that mollified measure solutions are in fact smooth solutions. The mollified measures turn out to have not only weak but also strong boundary entropy flux traces. Another advantage with the Young measure analysis is that the usual assumption of Lipschitz continuous flux functions can be relaxed to continuous fluxes, with little additional work.
We use the method of positive quadratic forms and discrete analogues of the Laguerre inequality recently obtained by the author, to give bounds on the zeros of the Charlier polynomials, which are uniform in all parameters involved.