Kyoto J. Math. 62 (2), 313-356, (June 2022) DOI: 10.1215/21562261-2022-0006
KEYWORDS: arithmetic over finite fields, counting multiplicities, intersection tree, rational points, 11D45, 11G25, 14G05, 14J17, 14C17
In this paper, we consider a problem of counting multiplicities. We fix a counting function of multiplicity of rational points in a hypersurface of a projective space over a finite field, and we give an upper bound for the sum with respect to this counting function in terms of the degree of the hypersurface and the dimension and the cardinality of the finite field. This upper bound gives a description of the complexity of the singular locus of this hypersurface. In order to obtain this upper bound, we introduce a notion called an intersection tree by intersection theory. We construct a sequence of intersections, such that the multiplicity of a singular rational point is equal to that of one of the irreducible components in these intersections. The multiplicities of these irreducible components constructed above are bounded by their multiplicities in the intersection tree.