Yuichiro Hoshi, Arata Minamide, Shinichi Mochizuki

Kodai Math. J. 45 (3), 295-348, (November 2022) DOI: 10.2996/kmj45301
KEYWORDS: Anabelian geometry, Grothendieck-Teichmüller group, generalized fiber subgroup, log-full subgroup, hyperbolic curve, configuration space, 14H30, 14H10

Let $\Sigma$ be a set of prime numbers which is either of cardinality one or equal to the set of all prime numbers. In this paper, we prove that various objects that arise from the *geometry* of the configuration space of a hyperbolic curve over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero may be *reconstructed group-theoretically* from the pro-$\Sigma$ *fundamental group* of the configuration space. Let $X$ be a hyperbolic curve of type $(g,r)$ over a field $k$ of characteristic zero. Thus, $X$ is obtained by removing from a proper smooth curve of genus $g$ over $k$ a closed subscheme [i.e., the "divisor of cusps"] of $X$ whose structure morphism to Spec$(k)$ is finite étale of degree $r$; $2g-2+r>0$. Write $X_n$ for the $n$-th configuration space associated to $X$, i.e., the complement of the various diagonal divisors in the fiber product over $k$ of $n$ copies of $X$. Then, when $k$ is *algebraically closed*, we show that the *triple* $(n,g,r)$ and the *generalized fiber subgroups*—i.e., the subgroups that arise from the various *natural morphisms* $X_n \to X_m$ $[m$ < $n]$, which we refer to as *generalized projection morphisms*—of the pro-$\Sigma$ *fundamental group* $\Pi_n$ of $X_n$ may be *reconstructed group-theoretically* from $\Pi_n$ whenever $n \geq 2$. This result *generalizes* results obtained previously by the first and third authors and A. Tamagawa to the case of *arbitrary hyperbolic curves* [i.e., without restrictions on $(g,r)$]. As an application, in the case where $(g,r)= (0,3)$ and $n \geq 2$, we conclude that there exists a *direct product decomposition*

Out$(\Pi_n) = {\mathrm{GT}^{\Sigma}} \times \mathfrak{S}_{n + 3}$

—where we write "Out$(-)$" for the group of outer automorphisms [i.e., *without any auxiliary restrictions*!] of the profinite group in parentheses and ${\mathrm{GT}^{\Sigma}}$ (respectively, $\mathfrak{S}_{n + 3}$) for the pro-$\Sigma$ *Grothendieck-Teichmüller group* (respectively, symmetric group on $n + 3$ letters). This direct product decomposition may be applied to obtain a *simplified purely group-theoretic equivalent definition*—i.e., as the *centralizer* in ${\rm Out}(\Pi_n)$ of the *union of the centers of the open subgroups* of ${\rm Out}(\Pi_n)$—of ${\mathrm{GT}^{\Sigma}}$. One of the key notions underlying the theory of the present paper is the notion of a pro-$\Sigma$ *log-full subgroup*—which may be regarded as a sort of *higher-dimensional analogue* of the notion of a pro-$\Sigma$ *cuspidal inertia subgroup of a surface group*—of $\Pi_n$. In the final section of the present paper, we show that, when $X$ and $k$ satisfy certain conditions concerning "*weights*", the pro-$l$ log-full subgroups may be *reconstructed group-theoretically* from the natural outer action of the absolute Galois group of $k$ on the geometric pro-$l$ fundamental group of $X_n$.