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A cardinal characteristic can often be described as the smallest size of a family of sequences which has a given property. Instead of this traditional concern for a smallest realization of the given property, a basically new approach, taken in  and , asks for a realization whose members are sequences of labels that correspond to 1-way infinite paths in a labelled graph. We study this approach as such, establishing tools that are applicable to all these cardinal characteristics. As an application, we demonstrate the power of the tools developed by presenting a short proof of the bounded graph conjecture .
We give an affirmative answer to Brendle's and Hrušák's question of whether the club principle together with 𝔥 > ℵ1 is consistent. We work with a class of axiom A forcings with countable conditions such that q≥n p is determined by finitely many elements in the conditions p and q and that all strengthenings of a condition are subsets, and replace many names by actual sets. There are two types of technique: one for tree-like forcings and one for forcings with creatures that are translated into trees. Both lead to new models of the club principle.
We present a countable complete first order theory T which is model theoretically very well behaved: it eliminates quantifiers, is ω-stable, it has NDOP and is shallow of depth two. On the other hand, there is no countable bound on the Scott heights of its countable models, which implies that the isomorphism relation for countable models is not Borel.
Fraïssé studied countable structures 𝒮 through analysis of the age of 𝒮, i.e., the set of all finitely generated substructures of 𝒮. We investigate the effectiveness of his analysis, considering effectively presented lists of finitely generated structures and asking when such a list is the age of a computable structure. We focus particularly on the Fraïssé limit. We also show that degree spectra of relations on a sufficiently nice Fraïssé limit are always upward closed unless the relation is definable by a quantifier-free formula. We give some sufficient or necessary conditions for a Fraïssé limit to be spectrally universal. As an application, we prove that the computable atomless Boolean algebra is spectrally universal.
In this work a double exponential time inseparability result is proven for a finitely axiomatizable first order theory Q+. The theory, subset of Presburger theory of addition S+, is the additive fragment of Robinson system Q. We prove that every set that separates Q+ from the logically false sentences of addition is not recognizable by any Turing machine working in double exponential time. The lower bound is given both in the non-deterministic and in the linear alternating time models.
The result implies also that any theory of addition that is consistent with Q+—in particular any theory contained in S+—is at least double exponential time difficult. Our inseparability result is an improvement on the known lower bounds for arithmetic theories.
Our proof uses a refinement and adaptation of the technique that Fischer and Rabin used to prove the difficulty of S+. Our version of the technique can be applied to any incomplete finitely axiomatizable system in which all of the necessary properties of addition are provable.
This paper introduces a natural extension of Kolchin's differential Galois theory to positive characteristic iterative differential fields, generalizing to the non-linear case the iterative Picard—Vessiot theory recently developed by Matzat and van der Put. We use the methods and framework provided by the model theory of iterative differential fields. We offer a definition of strongly normal extension of iterative differential fields, and then prove that these extensions have good Galois theory and that a G-primitive element theorem holds. In addition, making use of the basic theory of arc spaces of algebraic groups, we define iterative logarithmic equations, finally proving that our strongly normal extensions are Galois extensions for these equations.
In this paper we study a reducibility that has been introduced by Klaus Weihrauch or, more precisely, a natural extension for multi-valued functions on represented spaces. We call the corresponding equivalence classes Weihrauch degrees and we show that the corresponding partial order induces a lower semi-lattice. It turns out that parallelization is a closure operator for this semi-lattice and that the parallelized Weihrauch degrees even form a lattice into which the Medvedev lattice and the Turing degrees can be embedded. The importance of Weihrauch degrees is based on the fact that multi-valued functions on represented spaces can be considered as realizers of mathematical theorems in a very natural way and studying the Weihrauch reductions between theorems in this sense means to ask which theorems can be transformed continuously or computably into each other. As crucial corner points of this classification scheme the limited principle of omniscience LPO, the lesser limited principle of omniscience LLPO and their parallelizations are studied. It is proved that parallelized LLPO is equivalent to Weak Kőnig's Lemma and hence to the Hahn—Banach Theorem in this new and very strong sense. We call a multi-valued function weakly computable if it is reducible to the Weihrauch degree of parallelized LLPO and we present a new proof, based on a computational version of Kleene's ternary logic, that the class of weakly computable operations is closed under composition. Moreover, weakly computable operations on computable metric spaces are characterized as operations that admit upper semi-computable compact-valued selectors and it is proved that any single-valued weakly computable operation is already computable in the ordinary sense.
We prove that for every Σ02 enumeration degree b there exists a noncuppable Σ02 degree a > 0e such that b' ≤ca' and a'' ≤cb''. This allows us to deduce, from results on the high/low jump hierarchy in the local Turing degrees and the jump preserving properties of the standard embedding ι : 𝒟T → 𝒟e, that there exist Σ02 noncuppable enumeration degrees at every possible—i.e., above low1—level of the high/low jump hierarchy in the context of 𝒟e.
Let κ < λ be regular uncountable cardinals. Using a finite support iteration (in fact a matrix iteration) of ccc posets we obtain the consistency of 𝔟=𝔞=κ < 𝔰=λ. If μ is a measurable cardinal and μ < κ <λ, then using similar techniques we obtain the consistency of 𝔟=κ < 𝔞=𝔰=λ.
We answer a question raised in , that is whether the infinite weight of the generic type of the free group is witnessed in Fω. We also prove that the set of primitive elements in finite rank free groups is not uniformly definable. As a corollary, we observe that the generic type over the empty set is not isolated. Finally, we show that uncountable free groups are not ℵ1-homogeneous.
We find the complete Euler characteristics for the categories of definable sets and functions in strongly minimal groups. Their images, which represent the Grothendieck semirings of those categories, are all isomorphic to the semiring of polynomials over the integers with nonnegative leading coefficient. As a consequence, injective definable endofunctions in those groups are surjective. For infinite vector spaces over arbitrary division rings, the same results hold, and more: We also establish the Fubini property for all Euler characteristics, and extend the complete one to the eq-expansion of those spaces while preserving the Fubini property but not completeness. Then, surjective interpretable endofunctions in those spaces are injective, and conversely. Our presentation is made in the general setting of multi-sorted structures.
Louveau and Rosendal  have shown that the relation of bi-embeddability for countable graphs as well as for many other natural classes of countable structures is complete under Borel reducibility for analytic equivalence relations. This is in strong contrast to the case of the isomorphism relation, which as an equivalence relation on graphs (or on any class of countable structures consisting of the models of a sentence of ℒω1ω) is far from complete (see [5, 2]).
In this article we strengthen the results of  by showing that not only does bi-embeddability give rise to analytic equivalence relations which are complete under Borel reducibility, but in fact any analytic equivalence relation is Borel equivalent to such a relation. This result and the techniques introduced answer questions raised in  about the comparison between isomorphism and bi-embeddability. Finally, as in  our results apply not only to classes of countable structures defined by sentences of ℒω1ω, but also to discrete metric or ultrametric Polish spaces, compact metrizable topological spaces and separable Banach spaces, with various notions of embeddability appropriate for these classes, as well as to actions of Polish monoids.
We prove that the first-order theory of the Medvedev degrees, the first-order theory of the Muchnik degrees, and the third-order theory of true arithmetic are pairwise recursively isomorphic (obtained independently by Lewis, Nies, and Sorbi ). We then restrict our attention to the degrees of closed sets and prove that the following theories are pairwise recursively isomorphic: the first-order theory of the closed Medvedev degrees, the first-order theory of the compact Medvedev degrees, the first-order theory of the closed Muchnik degrees, the first-order theory of the compact Muchnik degrees, and the second-order theory of true arithmetic. Our coding methods also prove that neither the closed Medvedev degrees nor the compact Medvedev degrees are elementarily equivalent to either the closed Muchnik degrees or the compact Muchnik degrees.
We show that the class of strongly jump-traceable c.e. sets can be characterised as those which have sufficiently slow enumerations so they obey a class of well-behaved cost functions, called benign. This characterisation implies the containment of the class of strongly jump-traceable c.e. Turing degrees in a number of lowness classes, in particular the classes of the degrees which lie below incomplete random degrees, indeed all LR-hard random degrees, and all ω-c.e. random degrees. The last result implies recent results of Diamondstone's and Ng's regarding cupping with superlow c.e. degrees and thus gives a use of algorithmic randomness in the study of the c.e. Turing degrees.
We study cut-elimination in first-order classical logic. We construct a sequence of polynomial-length proofs having a non-elementary number of different cut-free normal forms. These normal forms are different in a strong sense: they not only represent different Herbrand-disjunctions but also differ in their propositional structure.
This result illustrates that the constructive content of a proof in classical logic is not uniquely determined but rather depends on the chosen method for extracting it.
Improving on a result of Arana, we construct an effective family (φr| r∈ℚ∩[0,1]) of Σn-conservative Πn sentences, increasing in strength as r decreases, with the property that ¬φp is Πn-conservative over PA+φq whenever p <. We also construct a family of Σn sentences with properties as above except that the roles of Σn and Πn are reversed. The latter result allows to re-obtain an unpublished result of Solovay, the presence of a subset order-isomorphic to the reals in every non-trivial end-segment of every branch of the E-tree, and to generalize it to analogues of the E-tree at higher levels of the arithmetical hierarchy.
Hindman's Theorem is a prototypical example of a combinatorial theorem with a proof that uses the topology of the ultrafilters. We show how the methods of this proof, including topological arguments about ultrafilters, can be translated into second order arithmetic.
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