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An arbitrary section of the canonical projection of a group onto the cosets modulo a subgroup is associated with a binary operation on the cosets. We provide sufficient conditions for obtaining a left loop, a left gyrogroup or a gyrocommutative gyrogroup in such a way. The non-positively curved sections in Lie groups allow a scalar multiplication, which turns them into quasi left Lie gyrovector spaces. The left invariant metrics on homogeneous spaces turn out to be compatible with the gyro-structure. For instance, their geodesics are gyro-lines; the associated distance to the origin is a gyro-homogeneous norm, satisfying gyro-triangle inequality; etc. The work establishes infinitesimal criteria for a homogeneous space to bear a left Lie gyrovector space or a Lie gyrovector space structure. It characterizes the Cartan gyrovector spaces and works out explicitly the example of the upper half-plane.
We give a survey of infinite dimensional Lie groups and show some applications and examples in mathematical physics. This includes diffeomorphism groups and their natural subgroups like volume preserving, symplectic and contact transformations, as well as gauge groups, quantomorphisms and loop groups. Various applications include fluid dynamics, Maxwell’s equations, plasma physics and BRST symmetries in quantum field theory. We discuss the Lie group structures of pseudodifferential and Fourier integral operators, both on compact and non- compact manifolds and give applications to the KdV equation and quantization.