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The Yamabe invariant is an invariant of a closed smooth manifold defined using conformal geometry and the scalar curvature. Recently, Petean showed that the Yamabe invariant is nonnegative for all closed simply connected manifolds of dimension ≥ 5. We extend this to show that Yamabe invariant is nonnegative for all closed manifolds of dimension ≥ 5 with fundamental group of odd order having all Sylow subgroups abelian. The main new geometric input is a way of studying the Yamabe invariant on Toda brackets. A similar method of proof shows that all closed oriented manifolds of dimension ≥ 5 with non-spin universal cover, with finite fundamental group having all Sylow subgroups elementary abelian, admit metrics of positive scalar curvature, once one restricts to the "complement" of manifolds whose homology classes are "toral." The exceptional toral homology classes only exist in dimensions not exceeding the "rank" of the fundamental group, so this proves important cases of the Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg Conjecture once the dimension is sufficiently large.
We introduce a symplectic surgery in six dimensions which collapses Lagrangian three-spheres and replaces them by symplectic two-spheres. Under mirror symmetry it corresponds to an operation on complex 3-folds studied by Clemens, Friedman and Tian. We describe several examples which show that there are either many more Calabi-Yau manifolds (e.g., rigid ones) than previously thought or there exist "symplectic Calabi-Yaus" — non-Kähler symplectic 6-folds with c1 = 0. The analogous surgery in four dimensions, with a generalisation to ADE-trees of Lagrangians, implies that the canonical class of a minimal complex surface contains symplectic forms if and only if it has positive square.
This article studies the mean curvature flow of Lagrangian submanifolds. In particular, we prove the following global existence and convergence theorem: if the potential function of a Lagrangian graph in T2n is convex, then the flow exists for all time and converges smoothly to a flat Lagrangian submanifold. We also discuss various conditions on the potential function that guarantee global existence and convergence.
We are concerned with the problem of finding hypersurfaces of constant Gauss curvature (K-hypersurfaces) with prescribed boundary Γ in Rn+1, using the theory of Monge-Ampère equations. We prove that if Γ bounds a suitable locally convex hypersurface Σ, then Γ bounds a locally convex K-hypersurface. The major difficulty lies in the lack of a global coordinate system to reduce the problem to solving a fixed Dirichlet problem of Monge-Ampère type. In order to overcome this difficulty we introduced a Perron method to deform (lift) Σ to a solution. The success of this method is due to some important properties of locally convex hypersurfaces, which are of independent interest. The regularity of the resulting hypersurfaces is also studied and some interesting applications are given.
We define a stability condition for a polarised algebraic variety and state a conjecture relating this to the existence of a Kahler metric of constant scalar curvature. The main result of the paper goes some way towards verifying this conjecture in the case of toric surfaces. We prove that, under the stability hypothesis, the Mabuchi functional is bounded below on invariant metrics, and that minimising sequences have a certain convergence property. In the reverse direction, we give new examples of polarised surfaces which do not admit metrics of constant scalar curvature. The proofs use a general framework, developed by Guillemin and Abreu, in which invariant Kahler metrics correspond to convex functions on the moment polytope of a toric variety.