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This paper is devoted to the study of codimension two holomorphic foliations and distributions. We prove the stability of complete intersection of codimension two distributions and foliations in the local case. Conversely we show the existence of codimension two foliations which are not contained in any codimension one foliation. We study problems related to the singular locus and we classify homogeneous foliations of small degree.
Gromov–Witten invariants of real-orientable symplectic manifolds of odd “complex” dimensions; the second part studies the orientations on the moduli spaces of real maps used in constructing these invariants. The present paper applies the results of the latter to obtain quantitative and qualitative conclusions about the invariants defined in the former. After describing large collections of real-orientable symplectic manifolds, we show that the genus $1$ real Gromov–Witten invariants of sufficiently positive almost Kahler threefolds are signed counts of real genus 1 curves only and, thus, provide direct lower bounds for the counts of these curves in such targets. We specify real orientations on the real-orientable complete intersections in projective spaces; the real Gromov–Witten invariants they determine are in a sense canonically determined by the complete intersection itself, (at least) in most cases. We also obtain equivariant localization data that computes the real invariants of projective spaces and determines the contributions from many torus fixed loci for other complete intersections. Our results confirm Walcher’s predictions for the vanishing of these invariants in certain cases and for the localization data in other cases. The localization data is also used to demonstrate the non-triviality of our lower bounds for real curves of genus $1$ in the present paper and of higher genera in a separate paper.
In this article, we first establish the main tool—an integral formula (1.1) for Riemannian manifolds with multiple boundary components (or without boundary). This formula generalizes Reilly’s original formula from  and the recent result from . It provides a robust tool for sub-static manifolds regardless of the underlying topology.
Using (1.1) and suitable elliptic PDEs, we prove Heintze–Karcher type inequalities for bounded domains in general sub-static manifolds which recovers some of the results from Brendle  as special cases.
On the other hand, we prove a Minkowski inequality for static convex hypersurfaces in a sub-static warped product manifold. Moreover, we obtain an almost Schur lemma for horo-convex hypersurfaces in the hyperbolic space and convex hypersurfaces in the hemi-sphere, which can be viewed as a special Alexandrov–Fenchel inequality.
On a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary having positive mean curvature, a fundamental result of Shi and Tam states that, if the manifold has nonnegative scalar curvature and if the boundary is isometric to a strictly convex hypersurface in the Euclidean space, then the total mean curvature of the boundary is no greater than the total mean curvature of the corresponding Euclidean hypersurface. In $3$-dimension, Shi-Tam’s result is known to be equivalent to the Riemannian positive mass theorem.
In this paper, we provide a supplement to Shi–Tam’s result by including the boundary effect of minimal hypersurfaces. More precisely, given a compact manifold $\Omega$ with nonnegative scalar curvature, assuming its boundary consists of two parts, $\Sigma_H$ and $\Sigma_O$, where $\Sigma_H$ is the union of all closed minimal hypersurfaces in $\Omega$ and $\Sigma_O$ is assumed to be isometric to a suitable 2-convex hypersurface $\Sigma$ in a spatial Schwarzschild manifold of mass $m$, we establish an inequality relating $m$, the area of $\Sigma_H$, and two weighted total mean curvatures of $\Sigma_O$ and $\Sigma$.
In $3$-dimension, our inequality has implications to isometric embedding and quasi-local mass problems. In a relativistic context, the result can be interpreted as a quasi-local mass type quantity of $\Sigma_O$ being greater than or equal to the Hawking mass of $\Sigma_H$. We further analyze the limit of this quantity associated with suitably chosen isometric embeddings of large spheres in an asymptotically flat $3$-manifold $M$ into a spatial Schwarzschild manifold. We show that the limit equals the ADM mass of $M$. It follows that our result on the compact manifold $\Omega$ is equivalent to the Riemannian Penrose inequality.