The mechanism of inclusion removal from liquid steel by gas bubbling and bubble attachment in the tundish is complex due to the great number of variables involved, and it is even more difficult to study because of the turbulent flow conditions. The main objective of this work is to analyze and improve the understanding of the alumina inclusion removal rate by bubble attachment and by gas bubbling fluid dynamics effects. The results show that the inclusion collection probability mainly depends on the attachment mechanism by collision. This parameter was determined by calculating the induction time, which is shorter when the rupture time and the formation time of a stable three phases contact (particle/liquid/gas) are ignored than when it is fully considered, affecting the attachment probability. In addition, to achieve acceptable inclusion removal, a smaller bubble diameter is required, such as 1 mm. This consideration is almost impossible to achieve during tundish operation; a more realistic bubble diameter around 10 mm is employed, resulting in a very inefficient inclusion removal process by bubble attachment. Nevertheless, in a real casting tundish the inclusion removal rate employing argon bubbling is efficient; is mainly due to the fluid flow pattern changes rather than bubble attachment. Consequently, it is imperative to consider the summation of both removal mechanisms to compute a better approximation of this important operation.
"Mathematical Analysis of Inclusion Removal from Liquid Steel by Gas Bubbling in a Casting Tundish." J. Appl. Math. 2012 (SI07) 1 - 16, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/534275