Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches.
Please note that a Project Euclid web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content.
Contact email@example.com with any questions.
Communities (or clusters) are ubiquitous in real-world networks. Researchers from different fields have proposed many definitions of communities, which are usually thought of as a subset of nodes whose vertices are well connected with other vertices in the set and have relatively fewer connections with vertices outside the set. In contrast to traditional research that focuses mainly on detecting and/or testing such clusters, we propose a new definition of community and a novel way to study community structure, with which we are able to investigate mathematical network models to test whether they exhibit the small-community phenomenon, i.e., whether every vertex in the network belongs to some small community. We examine various models and establish both positive and negative results: we show that in some models, the small-community phenomenon exists, while in some other models, it does not.
We propose a model for the evolution of market share in the presence of social influence. We study a simple market in which the individuals arrive sequentially and choose one of a number of available products. Their choice of product is a stochastic function of the inherent quality of the product and its market share. Using techniques from stochastic approximation theory, we show that market shares converge to an equilibrium. We also derive the market shares at equilibrium in terms of the level of social influence and the inherent quality of the products. In a special case, in which the choice model is a multinomial logit model, we show that inequality in the market increases with social influence and that with strong enough social influence, monopoly occurs. These results support the observations made in the experimental study of cultural markets in Salganik et al., Experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market..