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We study a vector-borne disease with age of vaccination. A nonlinear incidence rate including mass action and saturating incidence as special cases is considered. The global dynamics of the equilibria are investigated and we show that if the basic reproduction number is less than 1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; that is, the disease dies out, while if the basic reproduction number is larger than 1, then the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, which means that the disease persists in the population. Using the basic reproduction number, we derive a vaccination coverage rate that is required for disease control and elimination.
The aim of this paper is to study the early stage of HBV infection and impact delay in the infection process on the adaptive immune response, which includes cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and antibodies. In this stage, the growth of the healthy hepatocyte cells is logistic while the growth of the infected ones is linear. To investigate the role of the treatment at this stage, we also consider two types of treatment: interferon- (IFN) and nucleoside analogues (NAs). To find the best strategy to use this treatment, an optimal control approach is developed to find the possibility of having a functional cure to HBV.
We propose a generalized virus dynamics model with distributed delays and both modes of transmission, one by virus-to-cell infection and the other by cell-to-cell transfer. In the proposed model, the distributed delays describe (i) the time needed for infected cells to produce new virions and (ii) the time necessary for the newly produced virions to become mature and infectious. In addition, the infection transmission process is modeled by general incidence functions for both modes. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis of the model is rigorously established and many known viral infection models with discrete and distributed delays are extended and improved.