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We give a characterization of metric spaces quasisymmetrically equivalent to a finitely connected circle domain. This result generalizes the uniformization of Ahlfors 2-regular spaces by Merenkov and Wildrick.
We provide sharp lower and upper bounds for the supremum of the norm of the total umbilicity tensor of complete spacelike hypersurfaces with constant scalar curvature immersed in a Lorentzian space form and satisfying a suitable Okumura-type inequality, which corresponds to a weaker hypothesis when compared with the geometric condition of the hypersurface having two distinct principal curvatures. Furthermore, we give a complete description and the gaps of the spacelike hypersurfaces which realize our estimates, obtaining as a consequence new characterizations of totally umbilical spacelike hypersurfaces and hyperbolic cylinders of Lorentzian space forms. Our approach is based on a version of Omori–Yau’s maximum principle for trace-type differential operators defined on a complete Riemannian manifold.
In this paper, we study the backward problem of determining initial condition for some class of nonlinear parabolic equations in multidimensional domain where data are given under random noise. This problem is ill-posed—i.e., the solution does not depend continuously on the data. To regularize the instable solution, we develop some new methods to construct some new regularized solution. We also investigate the convergence rate between the regularized solution and the solution of our equations. In particular, we establish results for several equations with constant coefficients and time dependent coefficients. The equations with constant coefficients include the heat equation, extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, Swift–Hohenberg equation, and many others. The equations with time dependent coefficients include Fisher-type logistic equations, the Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh–Nagumo equation. The methods developed in this paper can also be applied to get approximate solutions to several other equations including the 1-D Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation, 1-D modified Swift–Hohenberg equation, strongly damped wave equation, and 1-D Burgers equation with randomly perturbed operator. Some numerical examples are given which illustrate the effectiveness of our method.
Lu, Minguzzi, and Ohta introduced the notion of a lower N-weighted Ricci curvature bound with ε-range and derived several comparison geometric estimates from a Laplacian comparison theorem for a weighted Laplacian. The aim of this paper is to investigate various rigidity phenomena for the equality case of their comparison geometric results. We will obtain rigidity results concerning the Laplacian comparison theorem, diameter comparisons, and volume comparisons. We also generalize their works for a nonsymmetric Laplacian induced from vector field potential.
We introduce a new isomorphism-invariant notion of entropy for measure-preserving actions of arbitrary countable groups on probability spaces, which we call orbital Rokhlin entropy. It employs Danilenko’s orbital approach to entropy of a partition, and it is motivated by Seward’s recent generalization of Rokhlin’s characterization of entropy from amenable to general groups. A key ingredient in our approach is the use of an auxiliary probability-measure-preserving hyperfinite equivalence relation. Under the assumption of ergodicity of the auxiliary equivalence relation, our main result is a Shannon–McMillan–Breiman pointwise almost sure convergence theorem for the orbital entropy of partitions in measure-preserving group actions, the first such convergence result going beyond the realm of amenable groups. As a special case, we obtain a Shannon–McMillan–Breiman theorem for all strongly mixing actions of any countable group. Furthermore, we compare orbital Rokhlin entropy to Rokhlin entropy, and using an important recent result of Seward, we show that they coincide for free ergodic actions of any countable group. Finally, we consider actions of non-abelian free groups and demonstrate the geometric significance of the entropy equipartition property implied by the Shannon–McMillan–Breiman theorem. We show that the orbital entropy of a partition is the limit of the information functions of the sequence of partitions arising from refining any given finite partition along almost every horoball in the group.