We study protected nodes in various classes of random rooted trees by putting them in the general context of fringe subtrees introduced by Aldous (1991). Several types of random trees are considered: simply generated trees (or conditioned Galton-Watson trees), which includes several cases treated separately by other authors, binary search trees and random recursive trees. This gives unified and simple proofs of several earlier results, as well as new results.
"Protected nodes and fringe subtrees in some random trees." Electron. Commun. Probab. 19 1 - 10, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1214/ECP.v19-3048