This paper proposes a numerical bootstrap method that is consistent in many cases where the standard bootstrap is known to fail and where the $m$-out-of-$n$ bootstrap and subsampling have been the most commonly used inference approaches. We provide asymptotic analysis under both fixed and drifting parameter sequences, and we compare the approximation error of the numerical bootstrap with that of the $m$-out-of-$n$ bootstrap and subsampling. Finally, we discuss applications of the numerical bootstrap, such as constrained and unconstrained M-estimators converging at both regular and nonstandard rates, Laplace-type estimators, and test statistics for partially identified models.
"The numerical bootstrap." Ann. Statist. 48 (1) 397 - 412, February 2020. https://doi.org/10.1214/19-AOS1812