A new methodology is proposed for discrimination among stationary time-series. The time series are transformed into binary arrays by clipping (retaining only the signs of) the $j$th difference series, $j = 0, 1, 2, \cdots$. The degeneracy of clipped $j$th differences is studied as $j$ becomes large. A new goodness of fit statistic is defined as a quadratic form in the counts of axis-crossings by each of the first $k$ differences of the series. Simulations and the degeneracy of high-order differences justify fixing $k$ no larger than 10 for many processes. Empirical simulated distributions (with $k = 9$) of the goodness of fit statistic suggest a gamma approximation for its tail probabilities. Illustrations are given of discrimination between simple models with the new statistic.
"Time Series Discrimination by Higher Order Crossings." Ann. Statist. 10 (3) 786 - 794, September, 1982. https://doi.org/10.1214/aos/1176345871