Whether a dwarf spheroidal galaxy is in equilibrium or being tidally disrupted by the Milky Way is an important question for the study of its dark matter content and distribution. This question is investigated using 328 recent observations from the dwarf spheroidal Leo I. For Leo I, tidal disruption is detected, at least for stars sufficiently far from the center, but the effect appears to be quite modest. Statistical tools include isotonic and split point estimators, asymptotic theory, and resampling methods.
"Streaming motion in Leo I." Ann. Appl. Stat. 3 (1) 96 - 116, March 2009. https://doi.org/10.1214/08-AOAS211