As advances in technology allow the acquisition of complementary information, it is increasingly common for scientific studies to collect multiple datasets. Large-scale neuroimaging studies often include multiple modalities (e.g., task functional MRI, resting-state fMRI, diffusion MRI, and/or structural MRI) with the aim to understand the relationships between datasets. In this study, we seek to understand whether regions of the brain activated in a working memory task relate to resting-state correlations. In neuroimaging, a popular approach uses principal component analysis for dimension reduction prior to canonical correlation analysis with joint independent component analysis, but this may discard biological features with low variance and/or spuriously associate structure unique to a dataset with joint structure. We introduce SImultaneous Non-Gaussian component analysis (SING) in which dimension reduction and feature extraction are achieved simultaneously, and shared information is captured via subject scores. We apply our method to a working memory task and resting-state correlations from the Human Connectome Project. We find joint structure as evident from joint scores whose loadings highlight resting-state correlations involving regions associated with working memory. Moreover, some of the subject scores are related to fluid intelligence.
IG was supported in part by NSF Grant DMS-1712943. Data were provided in part by the Human Connectome Project, WU-Minn Consortium (Principal Investigators: David Van Essen and Kamil Ugurbil; 1U54MH091657) funded by the 16 NIH Institutes and Centers that support the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and by the McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience at Washington University.
The authors would like to thank the Editor Dr. Jeffrey Morris, Associate Editor, and two referees for comments that significantly improved this manuscript.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
"Simultaneous non-Gaussian component analysis (SING) for data integration in neuroimaging." Ann. Appl. Stat. 15 (3) 1431 - 1454, September 2021. https://doi.org/10.1214/21-AOAS1466