In the Teacher and Leader Performance Evaluation Systems study, schools were randomly assigned to receive new measures of teacher and principal performance. One outcome in the study, measured at the teacher level, was truncated at zero, and displayed a long tail. Rank-based statistics are one natural method to apply to such outcomes, since inferences will be robust and exact, and we can avoid assumptions about the model that generated the data. We investigate four different possible rank statistics that vary in the form of weighting applied to clusters. Each test statistic has the correct level but may vary in terms of the power to detect departures from the null. We conduct simulations for power comparing to linear mixed models with Normal, $t$, and Cauchy errors. We obtain a point estimate and construct confidence intervals by applying the Tobit model of effects, which assumes that treatment increases the outcome by a constant amount but only if the response under control would be positive. We also develop a formal randomization-based method for testing the appropriateness of the Tobit model of effects. In the data from the study, we find no evidence against the Tobit model of effects.
"Rank tests in unmatched clustered randomized trials applied to a study of teacher training." Ann. Appl. Stat. 12 (4) 2151 - 2174, December 2018. https://doi.org/10.1214/18-AOAS1147