We introduce a technique for showing classical knots and links are not slice. As one application we show that the iterated Bing doubles of many algebraically slice knots are not topologically slice. Some of the proofs do not use the existence of the Cheeger–Gromov bound, a deep analytical tool used by Cochran–Teichner. We define generalized doubling operators, of which Bing doubling is an instance, and prove our nontriviality results in this more general context. Our main examples are boundary links that cannot be detected in the algebraic boundary link concordance group.
"Link concordance and generalized doubling operators." Algebr. Geom. Topol. 8 (3) 1593 - 1646, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2140/agt.2008.8.1593