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Gaussian particles provide a flexible framework for modelling and simulating three-dimensional star-shaped random sets. In our framework, the radial function of the particle arises from a kernel smoothing, and is associated with an isotropic random field on the sphere. If the kernel is a von Mises-Fisher density, or uniform on a spherical cap, the correlation function of the associated random field admits a closed form expression. The Hausdorff dimension of the surface of the Gaussian particle reflects the decay of the correlation function at the origin, as quantified by the fractal index. Under power kernels we obtain particles with boundaries of any Hausdorff dimension between 2 and 3.
We consider Euclidean first passage percolation on a large family of connected random geometric graphs in the d-dimensional Euclidean space encompassing various well-known models from stochastic geometry. In particular, we establish a strong linear growth property for shortest-path lengths on random geometric graphs which are generated by point processes. We consider the event that the growth of shortest-path lengths between two (end) points of the path does not admit a linear upper bound. Our linear growth property implies that the probability of this event tends to zero sub-exponentially fast if the direct (Euclidean) distance between the endpoints tends to infinity. Besides, for a wide class of stationary and isotropic random geometric graphs, our linear growth property implies a shape theorem for the Euclidean first passage model defined by such random geometric graphs. Finally, this shape theorem can be used to investigate a problem which is considered in structural analysis of fixed-access telecommunication networks, where we determine the limiting distribution of the length of the longest branch in the shortest-path tree extracted from a typical segment system if the intensity of network stations converges to 0.
In this paper we study Nash equilibrium payoffs for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games with two reflecting barriers. We obtain an existence and a characterization of Nash equilibrium payoffs for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games with nonlinear cost functionals defined by doubly controlled reflected backward stochastic differential equations with two reflecting barriers.
This paper is concerned with the solution of the optimal stopping problem associated to the value of American options driven by continuous-time Markov chains. The value-function of an American option in this setting is characterised as the unique solution (in a distributional sense) of a system of variational inequalities. Furthermore, with continuous and smooth fit principles not applicable in this discrete state-space setting, a novel explicit characterisation is provided of the optimal stopping boundary in terms of the generator of the underlying Markov chain. Subsequently, an algorithm is presented for the valuation of American options under Markov chain models. By application to a suitably chosen sequence of Markov chains, the algorithm provides an approximate valuation of an American option under a class of Markov models that includes diffusion models, exponential Lévy models, and stochastic differential equations driven by Lévy processes. Numerical experiments for a range of different models suggest that the approximation algorithm is flexible and accurate. A proof of convergence is also provided.
The goal of this paper is to identify exponential convergence rates and to find computable bounds for them for Markov processes representing unreliable Jackson networks. First, we use the bounds of Lawler and Sokal (1988) in order to show that, for unreliable Jackson networks, the spectral gap is strictly positive if and only if the spectral gaps for the corresponding coordinate birth and death processes are positive. Next, utilizing some results on birth and death processes, we find bounds on the spectral gap for network processes in terms of the hazard and equilibrium functions of the one-dimensional marginal distributions of the stationary distribution of the network. These distributions must be in this case strongly light-tailed, in the sense that their discrete hazard functions have to be separated from 0. We relate these hazard functions with the corresponding networks' service rate functions using the equilibrium rates of the stationary one-dimensional marginal distributions. We compare the obtained bounds on the spectral gap with some other known bounds.
Retransmission-based failure recovery represents a primary approach in existing communication networks that guarantees data delivery in the presence of channel failures. Recent work has shown that, when data sizes have infinite support, retransmissions can cause long (-tailed) delays even if all traffic and network characteristics are light-tailed. In this paper we investigate the practically important case of bounded data units 0 ≤ Lb ≤ b under the condition that the hazard functions of the distributions of data sizes and channel statistics are proportional. To this end, we provide an explicit and uniform characterization of the entire body of the retransmission distribution P[ Nb > n] in both n and b. Our main discovery is that this distribution can be represented as the product of a power law and gamma distribution. This rigorous approximation clearly demonstrates the coupling of a power law distribution, dominating the main body, and the gamma distribution, determining the exponential tail. Our results are validated via simulation experiments and can be useful for designing retransmission-based systems with the required performance characteristics. From a broader perspective, this study applies to any other system, e.g. computing, where restart mechanisms are employed after a job processing failure.
In many-server systems it is crucial to staff the right number of servers so that targeted service levels are met. These staffing problems typically lead to constraint satisfaction problems that are difficult to solve. During the last decade, a powerful many-server asymptotic theory has been developed to solve such problems and optimal staffing rules are known to obey the square-root staffing principle. In this paper we develop many-server asymptotics in the so-called quality and efficiency driven regime, and present refinements to many-server asymptotics and square-root staffing for a Markovian queueing model with admission control and retrials.
The infinite source Poisson arrival model with heavy-tailed workload distributions has attracted much attention, especially in the modeling of data packet traffic in communication networks. In particular, it is well known that under suitable assumptions on the source arrival rate, the centered and scaled cumulative workload input process for the underlying processing system can be approximated by fractional Brownian motion. In many applications one is interested in the stabilization of the work inflow to the system by modifying the net input rate, using an appropriate admission control policy. In this paper we study a natural family of admission control policies which keep the associated scaled cumulative workload input asymptotically close to a prespecified linear trajectory, uniformly over time. Under such admission control policies and with natural assumptions on arrival distributions, suitably scaled and centered cumulative workload input processes are shown to converge weakly in the path space to the solution of a d-dimensional stochastic differential equation driven by a Gaussian process. It is shown that the admission control policy achieves moment stabilization in that the second moment of the solution to the stochastic differential equation (averaged over the d-stations) is bounded uniformly for all times. In one special case of control policies, as time approaches ∞, we obtain a fractional version of a stationary Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process that is driven by fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H > ½.
Burn-in is a method of 'elimination' of initial failures (infant mortality). In the conventional burn-in procedures, to burn-in a component or a system means to subject it to a fixed time period of simulated use prior to actual operation. Then those which fail during the burn-in procedure are scrapped and only those which survived the burn-in procedure are considered to be of satisfactory quality. Thus, in this case, the only information used for the elimination procedure is the lifetime of the corresponding item. In this paper we consider a new burn-in procedure which additionally employs a dependent covariate process in the elimination procedure. Through the comparison with the conventional burn-in procedure, we show that the new burn-in procedure is preferable under commonly satisfied conditions. The problem of determining the optimal burn-in parameters is also considered and the properties of the optimal parameters are derived. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the theoretical results obtained in this paper.
Skeletons of branching processes are defined as trees of lineages characterized by an appropriate signature of future reproduction success. In the supercritical case a natural choice is to look for the lineages that survive forever (O'Connell (1993)). In the critical case it was suggested that the particles with the total number of descendants exceeding a certain threshold could be distinguished (see Sagitov (1997)). These two definitions lead to asymptotic representations of the skeletons as either pure birth process (in the slightly supercritical case) or critical birth-death processes (in the critical case conditioned on the total number of particles exceeding a high threshold value). The limit skeletons reveal typical survival scenarios for the underlying branching processes. In this paper we consider near-critical Bienaymé-Galton-Watson processes and define their skeletons using marking of particles. If marking is rare, such skeletons are approximated by birth and death processes, which can be subcritical, critical, or supercritical. We obtain the limit skeleton for a sequential mutation model (Sagitov and Serra (2009)) and compute the density distribution function for the time to escape from extinction.
Branching processes are classical growth models in cell kinetics. In their construction, it is usually assumed that cell lifetimes are independent random variables, which has been proved false in experiments. Models of dependent lifetimes are considered here, in particular bifurcating Markov chains. Under the hypotheses of stationarity and multiplicative ergodicity, the corresponding branching process is proved to have the same type of asymptotics as its classic counterpart in the independent and identically distributed supercritical case: the cell population grows exponentially, the growth rate being related to the exponent of multiplicative ergodicity, in a similar way as to the Laplace transform of lifetimes in the i.i.d. case. An identifiable model for which the multiplicative ergodicity coefficients and the growth rate can be explicitly computed is proposed.
Vertices arrive sequentially in space and are joined to existing vertices at random according to a preferential rule combining degree and spatial proximity. We investigate phase transitions in the resulting graph as the relative strengths of these two components of the attachment rule are varied. Previous work of one of the authors showed that when the geometric component is weak, the limiting degree sequence mimics the standard Barabási-Albert preferential attachment model. We show that at the other extreme, in the case of a sufficiently strong geometric component, the limiting degree sequence mimics a purely geometric model, the on-line nearest-neighbour graph, for which we prove some extensions of known results. We also show the presence of an intermediate regime, with behaviour distinct from both the on-line nearest-neighbour graph and the Barabási-Albert model; in this regime, we obtain a stretched exponential upper bound on the degree sequence.
In this paper we investigate first passage percolation on an inhomogeneous random graph model introduced by Bollobás et al. (2007). Each vertex in the graph has a type from a type space, and edge probabilities are independent, but depend on the types of the end vertices. Each edge is given an independent exponential weight. We determine the distribution of the weight of the shortest path between uniformly chosen vertices in the giant component and show that the hopcount, i.e. the number of edges on this minimal-weight path, properly normalized, follows a central limit theorem. We handle the cases where the average number of neighbors λ̃ n of a vertex tends to a finite λ̃ in full generality and consider λ̃ = ∞ under mild assumptions. This paper is a generalization of the paper of Bhamidi et al. (2011), where first passage percolation is explored on the Erdős-Rényi graphs.
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