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In this paper we estimate the expectation of the size of the largest component in a supercritical random geometric graph; the expectation tends to a polynomial on a rate of exponential decay. We sharpen the expectation's asymptotic result using the central limit theorem. Similar results can be obtained for the size of the biggest open cluster, and for the number of open clusters of percolation on a box, and so on.
Given a Poisson process on a d-dimensional torus, its random geometric simplicial complex is the complex whose vertices are the points of the Poisson process and simplices are given by the Cech complex associated to the coverage of each point. By means of Malliavin calculus, we compute explicitly the three first-order moments of the number of k-simplices, and provide a way to compute higher-order moments. Then we derive the mean and the variance of the Euler characteristic. Using the Stein method, we estimate the speed of convergence of the number of occurrences of any connected subcomplex as it converges towards the Gaussian law when the intensity of the Poisson point process tends to infinity. We use a concentration inequality for Poisson processes to find bounds for the tail distribution of the Betti number of first order and the Euler characteristic in such simplicial complexes.
This paper deals with Poisson processes on an arbitrary measurable space. Using a direct approach, we derive formulae for moments and cumulants of a vector of multiple Wiener-Itô integrals with respect to the compensated Poisson process. Also, we present a multivariate central limit theorem for a vector whose components admit a finite chaos expansion of the type of a Poisson U-statistic. The approach is based on recent results of Peccati et al. (2010), combining Malliavin calculus and Stein's method; it also yields Berry-Esseen-type bounds. As applications, we discuss moment formulae and central limit theorems for general geometric functionals of intersection processes associated with a stationary Poisson process of k-dimensional flats in Rd.
We consider a two-dimensional reflecting random walk on the nonnegative integer quadrant. This random walk is assumed to be skip free in the direction to the boundary of the quadrant, but may have unbounded jumps in the opposite direction, which are referred to as upward jumps. We are interested in the tail asymptotic behavior of its stationary distribution, provided it exists. Assuming that the upward jump size distributions have light tails, we find the rough tail asymptotics of the marginal stationary distributions in all directions. This generalizes the corresponding results for the skip-free reflecting random walk in Miyazawa (2009). We exemplify these results for a two-node queueing network with exogenous batch arrivals.
In this paper we study the strong local survival property for discrete-time and continuous-time branching random walks. We study this property by means of an infinite-dimensional generating function G and a maximum principle which, we prove, is satisfied by every fixed point of G. We give results for the existence of a strong local survival regime and we prove that, unlike local and global survival, in continuous time, strong local survival is not a monotone property in the general case (though it is monotone if the branching random walk is quasitransitive). We provide an example of an irreducible branching random walk where the strong local property depends on the starting site of the process. By means of other counterexamples, we show that the existence of a pure global phase is not equivalent to nonamenability of the process, and that even an irreducible branching random walk with the same branching law at each site may exhibit nonstrong local survival. Finally, we show that the generating function of an irreducible branching random walk can have more than two fixed points; this disproves a previously known result.
We consider Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms which combine Gibbs updates with Metropolis-Hastings updates, resulting in a conditional Metropolis-Hastings sampler (CMH sampler). We develop conditions under which the CMH sampler will be geometrically or uniformly ergodic. We illustrate our results by analysing a CMH sampler used for drawing Bayesian inferences about the entire sample path of a diffusion process, based only upon discrete observations.
We model and study the genetic evolution and conservation of a population of diploid hermaphroditic organisms, evolving continuously in time and subject to resource competition. In the absence of mutations, the population follows a three-type, nonlinear birth-and-death process, in which birth rates are designed to integrate Mendelian reproduction. We are interested in the long-term genetic behavior of the population (adaptive dynamics), and in particular we compute the fixation probability of a slightly nonneutral allele in the absence of mutations, which involves finding the unique subpolynomial solution of a nonlinear three-dimensional recurrence relationship. This equation is simplified to a one-dimensional relationship which is proved to admit exactly one bounded solution. Adding rare mutations and rescaling time, we study the successive mutation fixations in the population, which are given by the jumps of a limiting Markov process on the genotypes space. At this time scale, we prove that the fixation rate of deleterious mutations increases with the number of already fixed mutations, which creates a vicious circle called the extinction vortex.
In this paper we provide the basis for new methods of inference for max-stable processes ξ on general spaces that admit a certain incremental representation, which, in important cases, has a much simpler structure than the max-stable process itself. A corresponding peaks-over-threshold approach will incorporate all single events that are extreme in some sense and will therefore rely on a substantially larger amount of data in comparison to estimation procedures based on block maxima. Conditioning a process η in the max-domain of attraction of ξ on being extremal, several convergence results for the increments of η are proved. In a similar way, the shape functions of mixed moving maxima (M3) processes can be extracted from suitably conditioned single events η. Connecting the two approaches, transformation formulae for processes that admit both an incremental and an M3 representation are identified.
We show that the total number of collisions in the exchangeable coalescent process driven by the beta(1, b) measure converges in distribution to a 1-stable law, as the initial number of particles goes to ∞. The stable limit law is also shown for the total branch length of the coalescent tree. These results were known previously for the instance b = 1, which corresponds to the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent. The approach we take is based on estimating the quality of a renewal approximation to the coalescent in terms of a suitable Wasserstein distance. Application of the method to beta(a, b)-coalescents with 0 < a < 1 leads to a simplified derivation of the known (2 - a)-stable limit. We furthermore derive asymptotic expansions for the moments of the number of collisions and of the total branch length for the beta(1, b)-coalescent by exploiting the method of sequential approximations.
In this paper we use a simple transient Markov process with an absorbing point to investigate the qualitative behavior of a large-scale storage network of nonreliable file servers across which files can be duplicated. When the size of the system goes to ∞, we show that there is a critical value for the maximum number of files per server such that, below this quantity, most files have a maximum number of copies. Above this value, the network loses a significant number of files until some equilibrium is reached. When the network is stable, we show that, with convenient time scales, the evolution of the network towards the absorbing state can be described via a stochastic averaging principle.
We analyze the optimal policy for the sequential selection of an alternating subsequence from a sequence of n independent observations from a continuous distribution F, and we prove a central limit theorem for the number of selections made by that policy. The proof exploits the backward recursion of dynamic programming and assembles a detailed understanding of the associated value functions and selection rules.
A version of the contact process (effectively an SIS model) on a finite set of sites is considered in which there is the possibility of spontaneous infection. A companion process is also considered in which spontaneous infection does not occur from the disease-free state. Monotonicity with respect to parameters and initial data is established, and conditions for irreducibility and exponential convergence of the processes are given. For the spontaneous process, a set of approximating equations is derived, and its properties investigated.
The generalized Pólya urn has been extensively studied and is widely applied in many disciplines. An important application of urn models is in the development of randomized treatment allocation schemes in clinical studies. The randomly reinforced urn was recently proposed, but, although the model has some intuitively desirable properties, it lacks theoretical justification. In this paper we obtain important asymptotic properties for multicolor reinforced urn models. We derive results for the rate of convergence of the number of patients assigned to each treatment under a set of minimum required conditions and provide the distributions of the limits. Furthermore, we study the asymptotic behavior for the nonhomogeneous case.
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