Annals of Statistics

Greedy function approximation: A gradient boosting machine.

Jerome H. Friedman

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Function estimation/approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization in function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest-descent minimization. A general gradient descent “boosting” paradigm is developed for additive expansions based on any fitting criterion.Specific algorithms are presented for least-squares, least absolute deviation, and Huber-M loss functions for regression, and multiclass logistic likelihood for classification. Special enhancements are derived for the particular case where the individual additive components are regression trees, and tools for interpreting such “TreeBoost” models are presented. Gradient boosting of regression trees produces competitive, highly robust, interpretable procedures for both regression and classification, especially appropriate for mining less than clean data. Connections between this approach and the boosting methods of Freund and Shapire and Friedman, Hastie and Tibshirani are discussed.

Article information

Ann. Statist., Volume 29, Number 5 (2001), 1189-1232.

First available in Project Euclid: 8 February 2002

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Zentralblatt MATH identifier

Primary: 62-02: Research exposition (monographs, survey articles) 62-07: Data analysis 62-08 62G08: Nonparametric regression 62H30: Classification and discrimination; cluster analysis [See also 68T10, 91C20] 68T10: Pattern recognition, speech recognition {For cluster analysis, see 62H30}

Function estimation boosting decision trees robust nonparametric regression


Friedman, Jerome H. Greedy function approximation: A gradient boosting machine. Ann. Statist. 29 (2001), no. 5, 1189--1232. doi:10.1214/aos/1013203451.

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