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We discuss, in varying degrees of detail, three contemporary themes in prime number theory. Topic 1: the work of Goldston, Pintz and Yıldırım on short gaps between primes. Topic 2: the work of Mauduit and Rivat, establishing that 50% of the primes have odd digit sum in base 2. Topic 3: work of Tao and the author on linear equations in primes.
The purpose of this note is to review an algebraic proof of the finite generation theorem due to Birkar-Cascini-Hacon-McKernan  whose method is based on the Minimal Model Program (MMP). An analytic proof by Siu  will be reviewed by Mihai Paun.
An introduction is provided to some current research trends in stability in geometric invariant theory and the problem of Kähler metrics of constant scalar curvature. Besides classical notions such as Chow-Mumford stability, the emphasis is on several new stability conditions, such as K-stability, Donaldson’s infinite-dimensional GIT, and conditions on the closure of orbits of almost-complex structures under the diffeomorphism group. Related analytic methods are also discussed, including estimates for energy functionals, Tian-Yau-Zelditch approximations, estimates for moment maps, complex Monge-Ampère equations and pluripotential theory, and the Kähler-Ricci flow.