Quantum computation performs calculations by using quantum devices instead of electronic devices following classical physics and used by classical computers. Although general purpose quantum computers of practical scale may be many years away, special purpose quantum computers are being built with capabilities exceeding classical computers. One prominent case is the so-called D-Wave quantum computer, which is a computing hardware device built to implement quantum annealing for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Whether D-Wave computing hardware devices display a quantum behavior or can be described by a classical model has attracted tremendous attention, and it remains controversial to determine whether quantum or classical effects play a crucial role in exhibiting the computational input–output behaviors of the D-Wave devices. This paper consists of two parts where the first part provides a review of quantum annealing and its implementations, and the second part proposes statistical methodologies to analyze data generated from annealing experiments. Specifically, we introduce quantum annealing to solve optimization problems and describe D-Wave computing devices to implement quantum annealing. We illustrate implementations of quantum annealing using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations carried out by classical computers. Computing experiments have been conducted to generate data and compare quantum annealing with classical annealing. We propose statistical methodologies to analyze computing experimental data from a D-Wave device and simulated data from the MCMC based annealing methods, and establish asymptotic theory and check finite sample performances for the proposed statistical methodologies. Our findings confirm bimodal histogram patterns displayed in input–output data from the D-Wave device and both U-shape and unimodal histogram patterns exhibited in input–output data from the MCMC based annealing methods. Further statistical explorations reveal possible sources for the U-shape patterns. On the other hand, our statistical analysis produces statistical evidence to indicate that input–output data from the D-Wave device are not consistent with the stochastic behaviors of any MCMC based annealing models under the study. We present a list of statistical research topics for the future study on quantum annealing and MCMC simulations.
"Quantum Annealing with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulations and D-Wave Quantum Computers." Statist. Sci. 31 (3) 362 - 398, August 2016. https://doi.org/10.1214/16-STS560