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In this paper, we study the relationship among classical logic, intuitionistic logic, and quantum logic (orthologic and orthomodular logic). These logics are related in an interesting way and are not far apart from each other, as is widely believed. The results in this paper show how they are related with each other through a dual intuitionistic logic (a kind of paraconsistent logic). Our study is completely syntactical.
We consider two categorical syllogisms, valid or invalid, to be equivalent if they can be transformed into each other by certain transformations, going back to Aristotle, that preserve validity. It is shown that two syllogisms are equivalent if and only if they have the same models. Counts are obtained for the number of syllogisms in each equivalence class. For a more natural development, using group-theoretic methods, the space of syllogisms is enlarged to include nonstandard syllogisms, and various groups of transformations on that space are studied.
Moerdijk has introduced a topos of sheaves on a category of filters. Following his suggestion, we prove that its double negation subtopos is the topos of sheaves on the subcategory of ultrafilters—the ultrasheaves. We then use this result to establish a double negation translation of results between the topos of ultrasheaves and the topos on filters.