We adapt the commutator theory of universal algebra to the particular setting of racks and quandles, exploiting a Galois connection between congruences and certain normal subgroups of the displacement group. Congruence properties, such as abelianness and centrality, are reflected by the corresponding relative displacement groups, and the global properties, solvability and nilpotence, are reflected by the properties of the whole displacement group. To show the new tool in action, we present three applications: non-existence theorems for quandles (no connected involutory quandles of order $2^k$, no latin quandles of order $\equiv2\pmod4$), a non-colorability theorem (knots with trivial Alexander polynomial are not colorable by solvable quandles; in particular, by finite latin quandles), and a strengthening of Glauberman's results on Bruck loops of odd order.
This research was partly supported by the GAČR grant 18-20123S.
"Commutator theory for racks and quandles." J. Math. Soc. Japan 73 (1) 41 - 75, January, 2021. https://doi.org/10.2969/jmsj/83168316