The presence of defects in material continua is known to produce internal permanent strained states. Extending the theory of defects to four dimensions and allowing for the appropriate signature, it is possible to apply these concepts to space-time. In this case a defect would induce a non-trivial metric tensor, which can be interpreted as a gravitational field. The image of a defect in space-time can be applied to the description of the Big Bang. A review of the four-dimensional generalisation of defects and an application to the expansion of the universe will be presented.
"Defects in Four-Dimensional Continua: A Paradigm for the Expansion of the Universe?." J. Geom. Symmetry Phys. 16 39 - 56, 2009. https://doi.org/10.7546/jgsp-16-2009-39-56