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2022 Concurrent object regression
Satarupa Bhattacharjee, Hans-Georg Müller
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Electron. J. Statist. 16(2): 4031-4089 (2022). DOI: 10.1214/22-EJS2040


Modern-day problems in statistics often face the challenge of exploring and analyzing complex non-Euclidean object data that do not conform to vector space structures or operations. Examples of such data objects include covariance matrices, graph Laplacians of networks, and univariate probability distribution functions. In the current contribution a new concurrent regression model is proposed to characterize the time-varying relation between an object in a general metric space (as a response) and a vector in Rp (as a predictor), where concepts from Fréchet regression is employed. Concurrent regression has been a well-developed area of research for Euclidean predictors and responses, with many important applications for longitudinal studies and functional data. However, there is no such model available so far for general object data as responses. We develop generalized versions of both global least squares regression and locally weighted least squares smoothing in the context of concurrent regression for responses which are situated in general metric spaces and propose estimators that can accommodate sparse and/or irregular designs. Consistency results are demonstrated for sample estimates of appropriate population targets along with the corresponding rates of convergence. The proposed models are illustrated with human mortality data and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data (fMRI) as responses.

Funding Statement

Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database ( The research of H.-G. Müller was supported by NSF grant DMS-1712864 and NSF grant DMS-2014626.


Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904) and DOD ADNI (Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2-0012). As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at:

The authors would like to thank the reviewers for helpful comments that led to numerous improvements.


Download Citation

Satarupa Bhattacharjee. Hans-Georg Müller. "Concurrent object regression." Electron. J. Statist. 16 (2) 4031 - 4089, 2022.


Received: 1 December 2021; Published: 2022
First available in Project Euclid: 26 July 2022

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1214/22-EJS2040

Primary: 62J02 , 62R20
Secondary: 62G05 , 62G08

Keywords: Concurrent regression , fMRI , Fréchet regression , general metric space , local regression , metric-space valued data , random objects , varying coefficient model


Vol.16 • No. 2 • 2022
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