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1 April 2015 Surface subgroups from linear programming
Danny Calegari, Alden Walker
Duke Math. J. 164(5): 933-972 (1 April 2015). DOI: 10.1215/00127094-2877511

Abstract

We show that certain classes of graphs of free groups contain surface subgroups, including groups with positive b2 obtained by doubling free groups along collections of subgroups and groups obtained by “random” ascending HNN (Higman–Neumann–Neumann) extensions of free groups. A special case is the HNN extension associated to the endomorphism of a rank 2 free group sending a to ab and b to ba; this example (and the random examples) answer in the negative well-known questions of Sapir. We further show that the unit ball in the Gromov norm (in dimension 2) of a double of a free group along a collection of subgroups is a finite-sided rational polyhedron and that every rational class is virtually represented by an extremal surface subgroup. These results are obtained by a mixture of combinatorial, geometric, and linear programming techniques.

Citation

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Danny Calegari. Alden Walker. "Surface subgroups from linear programming." Duke Math. J. 164 (5) 933 - 972, 1 April 2015. https://doi.org/10.1215/00127094-2877511

Information

Published: 1 April 2015
First available in Project Euclid: 7 April 2015

zbMATH: 1367.20026
MathSciNet: MR3332895
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1215/00127094-2877511

Subjects:
Primary: 20F65
Secondary: 20P05, 57M07

Rights: Copyright © 2015 Duke University Press

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Vol.164 • No. 5 • 1 April 2015
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