We prove some results of the form "r residually irreducible and residually modular implies r is modular," where r is a suitable continuous odd 2-dimensional 2-adic representation of the absolute Galois group of ℚ. These results are analogous to those obtained by A. Wiles, R. Taylor, F. Diamond, and others for p-adic representations in the case when p is odd; some extra work is required to overcome the technical difficulties present in their methods when p=2. The results are subject to the assumption that any choice of complex conjugation element acts nontrivially on the residual representation, and the results are also subject to an ordinariness hypothesis on the restriction of r to a decomposition group at 2. Our main theorem (Theorem 4) plays a major role in a programme initiated by Taylor to give a proof of Artin's conjecture on the holomorphicity of L-functions for 2-dimensional icosahedral odd representations of the absolute Galois group of ℚ some results of this programme are described in a paper that appears in this issue, jointly authored with K. Buzzard, N. Shepherd-Barron, and Taylor.
"On the modularity of certain 2-adic Galois representations." Duke Math. J. 109 (2) 319 - 382, 15 Ausust 2001. https://doi.org/10.1215/S0012-7094-01-10923-X