In the asymptotic theory of quantum hypothesis testing, the minimal error probability of the first kind jumps sharply from zero to one when the error exponent of the second kind passes by the point of the relative entropy of the two states in an increasing way. This is well known as the direct part and strong converse of quantum Stein’s lemma.
Here we look into the behavior of this sudden change and have make it clear how the error of first kind grows smoothly according to a lower order of the error exponent of the second kind, and hence we obtain the second-order asymptotics for quantum hypothesis testing. This actually implies quantum Stein’s lemma as a special case. Meanwhile, our analysis also yields tight bounds for the case of finite sample size. These results have potential applications in quantum information theory.
Our method is elementary, based on basic linear algebra and probability theory. It deals with the achievability part and the optimality part in a unified fashion.
"Second-order asymptotics for quantum hypothesis testing." Ann. Statist. 42 (1) 171 - 189, February 2014. https://doi.org/10.1214/13-AOS1185