A general class of quadratic rank tests for randomness versus trend is introduced and studied in this paper. Included within this class are the Cramer-von Mises two sample test, the Watson two-sample test, and their extensions to trend alternatives. Analytical study is made of the asymptotic power and efficiency of such tests in a neighborhood of the null hypothesis.
"Local Asymptotic Power of Quadratic Rank Tests for Trend." Ann. Statist. 3 (2) 401 - 412, March, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1214/aos/1176343065