Place $n$ arcs, each of length $a_n$, uniformly at random on the circumference of a circle, choosing the arc length sequence $a_n$ so that the probability of completely covering the circle remains constant. We obtain the limiting distribution of the uncovered proportion of the circle. We show that this distribution has a natural interpretation as a noncentral chi-square distribution with zero degrees of freedom by expressing it as a Poisson mixture of mass at zero with central chi-square deviates having even degrees of freedom. We also treat the case of proportionately smaller arcs and obtain a limiting normal distribution. Potential applications include immunology, genetics, and time series analysis.
"Asymptotic Coverage Distributions on the Circle." Ann. Probab. 7 (4) 651 - 661, August, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1214/aop/1176994988